What Is Cotton Ginning Briefly Describe The Process

Cotton Gin Process
Cotton Ginning Process

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What Is Ginning Process?

Cotton ginning is the process of separating the cotton fibres from the cotton seeds. Comprehensive ginning operation would be executed if the separation of fibers from seed was effected without the most insignificant injury to either seed or the fiber. A cotton gin is a machine that fasts and efficiently separate the cotton fibers from the seeds, a job before done by hand. These seeds are unless used again to grow more cotton or, if damaged, are disposed of. It utilizes a blend of a wire shield and small wire sickles to pull the cotton above the screen, while brushes endlessly remove the loosened cotton lint to prevent jams. The term "gin" is an abstract for the engine, and means "machine".

What Is Cotton Ginning Briefly Describe The Process
Cotton Ginning 

Objects Of Cotton Ginning Process

These are the major objects of the ginning process of cotton:

  1. To eliminate the fibers from the seeds.
  2. To remove the neps and wastage in some limits.
  3. To handle the seeds and seedless cotton fiber independently.
  4. To order the cotton fiber from the root position of the seeds.

Types of Ginning

  1. Knife Roller Gin / Roller Gin
  2. Saw Gin
  3. Macarthy Gin

Knife Roller Gin / Roller Gin

The constructional detail of the machine is simply shown in the figure below. The seed cotton is put in bulk on the table. Through the reciprocating motion of the table by the crackpot arrangement, the seed cotton comes into touch with the knife roller (formed of several knife discs).

Auxiliary roller breaks the large group of seed cotton and keeps a constant supply of cotton to knife roller.

knife roller ginning
knife roller.

Knife portion being designed in such a manner that anything coming into contact with it is given an exchangeable or to and fro motion as well as being subject to a striking action due to its revolution.

The seed cotton is carried forward in the direction of the knife roller's motion until it is brought into touch with the leather roller. This roller, which has a much-roughened surface, due spirally-formed saw cuts. Has pressing against, it using spring and steel doctor Knife.

The cotton fibers brought into contact with the leather adhere to it, and are carried around past. the knife. The seeds can't follow. So, seeds will remain at the point of contact of the doctor knife and leather roller, with the fibers still correlated with it. The essential point of this gin now comes into play.

The knife roller is so set as to act upon, these adhering seeds, and it gives to them a soothing to and fro motion, repeated very quickly 'and at the same time, a slight striking action or pressure also repeated quickly. The combined action soon causes the seeds to separate from the fibers and to fall through the grid to the floor. The freed fibro passing forward is stripped from the roller by some pattern of the stripping board.

Saw Gin

The seed cotton is served upon the lattice and moved forward to the spike roller, which slackens the cotton and throws; it into the hopper.

In the hopper, the seeds cotton comes into contact with a rapidly revolving saw roller. App.70 saws are attached on a shaft.

As the saws revolve, the teeth carry the fibers progressive, but it is difficult for the seeds to follow and also, due to the heavier beating of the quickly revolving saws on the seed cotton, the fibers are separated from the seed and got around until the brush strips the fiber from the teeth.

Saw Ginning
Saw Gin

Empty seeds shells and other broken seeds are thrown into the grid, through which they pass into a suitable receptacle. An air current from the cage draws the fibers along the trunk section, and on reaching the revolving cage are brought under the pressure roller and delivered as a sheet, from which it is perceived to the baling press.

Uses of Saw Gin:

Saw gin is suitable for American cotton and where American cotton is grown, such as west Africa- India, Ceylon, etc.


There are three types of MACARATHY Gin



Here also due to the seeds being acted upon by the reciprocating motion of the beater blade by the crank, seeds are departed from the fiber. But there are two beater blades A and B actuated from cranks C and D. They rise and fall alternatively. Another working procedure is the same as the single-acting macarthy gin.


As shown in the figure below, there are two leather roller and a" doctor knives are pressed against each leather roller. The beater knives act from above and are given a reciprocating motion from a crank. Crankpin slides in a slot of arm carried by a vibrating shaft. Beater blades are fixed on arms projecting from vibrating shaft. Also, the grid and fingers are fixed on the vibrating shaft.

WORKING: Seed cotton is fed into the hopper -spaces. The c movement lowers this cotton into contact with the leather roller on one side and raises it away from the roller on another side.

Cotton Ginning Faults

These are the Following Faults of Ginning

  1.  Fiber is broken at the middle point so that it becomes smaller in length.
  2. Crush seed persists with the cotton.
  3. Neps have appeared in cotton.
  4. Dwelling excessive trash in the cotton.
  5. Remaining fibers with seed.

Is cotton ginning profitable business?

Yes, If you live in a country where cotton is used in textile production like Pakistan, Bangladesh, then you can make enormous profits by beginning a cotton ginning business, which supplies raw cotton to textile industries.

Cotton ginning simply requires using specialized machinery to separate cotton seeds from raw cotton. In other words, it is the extraction of seeds from cotton bolls. Collected cotton bolls contain cotton seeds, which must be withdrawn before the cotton could be utilized in textile production.

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